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  • Closing the Mathematics Achievement Gap in High-Poverty Middle Schools: Enablers and Constraints

    1/1/06 - Balfanz, Robert, Byrnes, Vaughan

    The mathematics achievement levels of U.S. students fall far behind those of other developed nations; within the United States itself, the students who are falling behind come predominantly from high-poverty and high-minority areas. This article reports on a series of analyses that followed 4 cohorts of students from 3 such schools through the 5th to 8th grades, where studies have found the mathematics achievement gap to develop most rapidly. The cohorts followed in these analyses attended...

  • Confronting Racism in Literacy Education and Research

    1/1/05 - Edmondson, Jacqueline

    Reviews the book "Literacy and Racial Justice: The Politics of Learning After Brown v. Board of Education," by Catherine Prendergast (2003). Closing the achievement gap is a central and explicit aim of current federal decisions. The achievement gap has direct and specific implications for literacy education and research. By linking reading with eventual success in school and other aspects of life, the Bush administration and Congress continue the assumption that reading well will guarantee...

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    Digest of Education Statistics 2009

    1/1/10 - Thomas D. Snyder, Sally A. Dillow

    "In fall 2009, about 75.2 million people were enrolled in American schools and colleges (table 1). About 4.7 million people were employed as elementary and secondary school teachers or as college faculty, in full-time equivalents (FTE). Other professional, administrative, and support staff at educational institutions totaled 5.4 million. All data for 2009 in this Introduction are projected. Some data for other years are projected or estimated as noted. In discussions of historical trends...

  • Direct instruction: Its contributions to high school achievement

    1/1/00 - Kozioff, Martin A., LaNunziata, Louis, Cowardin, James, Bessellieu, Frances B.

    Describes the design principles, instructional practices, and specific curricula of Direct Instruction. At a time when public schools are increasingly held accountable for students' achievement and for closing and preventing the achievement gap between minority/disadvantaged and white/advantaged students, Direct Instruction provides highly effective programs whose implementation fosters beneficial change in students' engagement and achievement, in teachers' skill at instruction and...

  • Discipline and Diplomas: Keeping Students at Their Desks

    4/24/14 - Waite, Cyndi

    In an address to the nation, Education Secretary Arne Duncan, acknowledged that under current school discipline policies across the nation, students of color and those with disabilities are far more likely to be suspended or expelled than their white counterparts. According to the Civil Rights Data Collection on school discipline, African American students are three times more likely to be suspended than white students, even when they commit similar offenses. The new guidance encourages...

  • Disparities Within: Unequal Spending and Achievement in an Urban School District

    1/1/03 - Condron, Dennis J., Roscigno, Vincent J.

    The debate over whether educational spending shapes achievement has persisted for decades, largely because of methodological and analytical limitations associated with the use of district-level data. In this study, the authors analyzed unique within-district variations in spending and achievement among 89 public elementary schools in a large, North Central, urban district. The analyses reveal considerable disparities in spending within the district, which are linked to local patterns of...

  • Disparities Within: Unequal Spending and Achievement in an Urban School District

    1/1/03 - Condron, Dennis J., Roscigno, Vincent J.

    The debate over whether educational spending shapes achievement has persisted for decades, largely because of methodological and analytical limitations associated with the use of district-level data. In this study, the authors analyzed unique within-district variations in spending and achievement among 89 public elementary schools in a large, North Central, urban district. The analyses reveal considerable disparities in spending within the district, which are linked to local patterns of...

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    Dropout Prevention: A Practice Guide

    1/13/10 - Mark Dynarski, Linda Clarke, Brian Cobb, Jeremy Finn, Russell Rumberger, Jay Smink

    "This guide is intended to be useful to educators in high schools and middle schools, to superintendents and school boards, and to state policymakers in planning and executing dropout prevention strategies. The target audience includes school administrators as well as district-level administrators. This guide seeks to help them develop practice and policy alternatives for implementation. The guide includes specific recommendations and indicates the quality of the evidence that supports these...

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    Eligibility policies and practices for young children under Part B of IDEA

    1/5/09 - Joan Danaher, The National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center

    In response to states’ interest in whether or how other states are using developmental delay or other eligibility category specific to 3- through 9-year-olds, the author reviewed the current eligibility classifications and criteria as retrieved from states’ Web sites, the National State Policy Database (2007) and/or provided by the coordinators of the state Part B-Section 619 programs, including the District of Columbia. Periodically data presented in this report are sent to the...

  • Equal Access to Content Instruction for English Learners: An Example from Science

    1/1/12 - Brown, Z.A. & DiRanna, K.

    Equal access to content instruction is the foundation of educational equity—it reduces opportunity gaps that lead to achievement gaps. Achievement gaps lead to gaps in college and career access, which lead to income gaps. Income gaps lead to language gaps, thus perpetuating one of the most critical gaps we face in education. This paper is about the importance of equal meaningful access to content instruction for English learners and how academic-language instruction through content...

  • Evidence of a differential effect of ability grouping on the reading achievement growth of language-minority Hispanics

    1/1/08 - Robinson, Joseph P.

    Ability grouping is sometimes thought to exacerbate inequality by increasing achievement gaps; however, ability grouping may in fact benefit a fast growing and often marginalized student population: children from non-English-speaking home environments. The level-appropriate, small-group instruction received in reading ability groups may be particularly beneficial to these language-minority children, who are not regularly exposed to English at home. Focusing on Hispanics, who make up the...

  • Examining disparities in mathematics education: Achievement gap or opportunity gap?

    1/1/07 - Flores, Alfinio

    The so-called achievement gap in mathematics is reframed as a problem of unequal opportunities to learn experienced by many low-income students and many Latino and African American students. First, data are presented showing striking and persistent differences on standardized tests among students of different ethnic groups, and socioeconomic levels. Then evidence is presented demonstrating that opportunities to learn mathematics are not equally distributed among all students. Specifically...

  • Examining Disparities in Mathematics Education: Achievement Gap or Opportunity Gap?

    1/1/07 - Flores, Alfinio

    The so-called achievement gap in mathematics is reframed as a problem of unequal opportunities to learn experienced by many low-income students and many Latino and African American students. First, data are presented showing striking and persistent differences on standardized tests among students of different ethnic groups, and socioeconomic levels. Then evidence is presented demonstrating that opportunities to learn mathematics are not equally distributed among all students. Specifically...

  • Examining Disparities in Mathematics Education: Achievement Gap or Opportunity Gap?

    1/1/07 - Flores, Alfinio

    The so-called achievement gap in mathematics is reframed as a problem of unequal opportunities to learn experienced by many low-income students and many Latino and African American students. First, data are presented showing striking and persistent differences on standardized tests among students of different ethnic groups, and socioeconomic levels. Then evidence is presented demonstrating that opportunities to learn mathematics are not equally distributed among all students. Specifically...

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    Health in childhood and adolescence and high school dropout

    1/23/10 - Joshua Breslau

    "There is ample evidence that poor health in childhood and adolescence is associated with higher risk of dropping out of high school. This association is suggestive of a causal effect of health problems on dropout and a potential role for health interventions to reduce the proportion of high school students who drop out. Interventions with such a dual benefit—improving health while decreasing dropout—would be important policy priorities. With the goal of identifying strategic priorities...

  • Identity and school adjustment: Revisiting the "acting White" assumption

    1/1/01 - Spencer, Margaret Beale, Noll, Elizabeth, Stoltzfus, Jill, Harpalani, Vinay

    It has long been offered as an explanation for the achievement gap between White and African American students, that African American youth would do better if they adopted a Eurocentric cultural values system. Unfortunately, this theory, along with a great amount of the established literature on minority youth identity development, depends on a deficit-oriented perspective to explain the discrepancy between African American and White students. This is problematic because the perspective...

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