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    Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education: Measuring the Problem

    1/31/07 - Martha Countinho, Donald Oswald, Equity Alliance at ASU

    The author of this brief discusses that racial disproportionality in school disciplinary practices has a long history, and still continues today. In the last three decades, racial disproportionality in school suspensions has increased noticeably, especially in high socioeconomic status (SES) schools. Empirical evidence suggests that exclusionary discipline practices result in further exclusion, school failure, and dropout. Today, nationwide African American students are disproportionately...

  • pdf

    Distinguishing Difference from Disability: The Common Causes of Racial/Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education

    1/27/10 - Fergus, Edward

    This Equity In Action is intended to provide educators and researchers with the most comprehensive, praxis-oriented information on identifying and reducing disproportionality in schools. Over the course of developing and piloting a data-driven process (2004-2010) for identifying root causes, we’ve gained insight into not only the root causes but also the driving forces (internal and external to district) of these root causes. Our data driven root cause process focused on examining various...

  • Reducing the Gap: Success for All and the Achievement of African American Students

    1/1/06 - Slavin, Robert E., Madden, Nancy A.

    Part of a special issue on research and its impact on educational policy and practice. A study evaluated the efficacy of using the Success for All (SFA) program with African-American students. Data were obtained from over 40 studies. The results indicate that there are two mechanisms by which SFA might reduce the achievement gap. First, the clear, powerful, and widely replicated effects of the program imply that if SFA were disproportionally applied to schools serving many African-American...

  • A How-to Plan for Widening the Gap

    1/1/09 - Marshall, Kim

    The article discusses ways that instructional decision making could widen achievement gaps for students. The author suggests educational leaders might increase achievement gaps through policies that benefit advantaged students, such as assigning novice teachers to classes with disadvantaged students, reducing professional development regarding classroom management and reducing classroom activities. She suggests effective teaching, a positive classroom environment, teacher collaboration...

  • Achieving inclusion through CLAD: Collaborative Learning Assessment through Dialogue

    1/1/08 - Fitch, E. Frank, Hulgin, Kathleen M.

    This study measures the effectiveness of Collaborative Learning Assessment through Dialogue (CLAD) on reading achievement in inclusive classrooms in the USA. The CLAD process involved students collaboratively completing multiple-choice quizzes, using dialogue and critical thinking to reach consensus and receiving immediate feedback on their responses. The procedure was implemented in three third-grade classrooms (n = 30) in a midwestern elementary school for the purpose of reducing a...

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    Health in childhood and adolescence and high school dropout

    1/23/10 - Joshua Breslau

    "There is ample evidence that poor health in childhood and adolescence is associated with higher risk of dropping out of high school. This association is suggestive of a causal effect of health problems on dropout and a potential role for health interventions to reduce the proportion of high school students who drop out. Interventions with such a dual benefit—improving health while decreasing dropout—would be important policy priorities. With the goal of identifying strategic priorities...

  • Reducing the gap: Success for all and the achievement of African American students

    1/1/06 - Slavin, Robert E., Madden, Nancy A.

    Success for All is a comprehensive reform model that uses cooperative learning, tutoring, family support services, and extensive professional development to help high-poverty schools succeed with their students. This article reviews research on Success for All with African American students, focusing on evidence that Success for All reduces the achievement gap between African American and White students. More than 40 studies, including a national randomized experiment, have found positive...

  • Reducing the Gap: Success for All and the Achievement of African American Students

    1/1/06 - Slavin, Robert E., Madden, Nancy A.

    Success for All is a comprehensive reform model that uses cooperative learning, tutoring, family support services, and extensive professional development to help high-poverty schools succeed with their students. This article reviews research on Success for All with African American students, focusing on evidence that Success for All reduces the achievement gap between African American and White students. More than 40 studies, including a national randomized experiment, have found positive...

  • Reducing the Racial Achievement Gap: A Social-Psychological Intervention

    1/1/06 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio, Apfel, Nancy, Master, Allison

    Two randomized field experiments tested a social-psychological intervention designed to improve minority student performance and increase our understanding of how psychological threat mediates performance in chronically evaluative real-world environments. We expected that the risk of confirming a negative stereotype aimed at one's group could undermine academic performance in minority students by elevating their level of psychological threat. We tested whether such psychological threat could...

  • Reducing the Racial Achievement Gap: A Social-Psychological Intervention

    1/1/06 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio, Apfel, Nancy, Master, Allison

    Two randomized field experiments tested a social-psychological intervention designed to improve minority student performance and increase our understanding of how psychological threat mediates performance in chronically evaluative real-world environments. We expected that the risk of confirming a negative stereotype aimed at one's group could undermine academic performance in minority students by elevating their level of psychological threat. We tested whether such psychological threat could...

  • Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of the Achievement Gap

    1/1/05 - Bol, Linda, Berry, Robert Q., III

    The purpose of this study was to survey the perceptions of secondary mathematics teachers on factors contributing to the achievement gap and ways to reduce this gap. National Council of the Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) members were surveyed, and a total of 379 secondary teachers responded. Overall, respondents were most likely to attribute the achievement gap to student characteristics, such as differences in motivational levels, work ethic, and family support. Furthermore, teachers from...

  • Separate But Not Yet Equal: The Relation Between School Finance Adequacy Litigation and African American Student Achievement

    1/1/06 - Glen, William J.

    The Black-White achievement gap presents perhaps the most important issue in education. Legal actions play a role in the efforts to reduce and eliminate the gap. School finance adequacy litigation offers the most widely used legal strategy to seek fairer outcomes for children. However, the literature is sparse with regard to the impact such litigation has on student outcomes. This article addresses the extent to which adequacy litigation functions as a means of narrowing the achievement gap...

  • The black-white "achievement gap" as a perennial challenge of urban science education: a sociocultural and historical overview with implications for research and practice

    1/1/01 - Norman, Obed, Ault, Charles R., Jr., Bentz, Bonnie

    A perennial challenge for urban education in the United States is finding effective ways to address the academic achievement gap between African American and White students. There is widespread and justified concern about the persistence of the achievement gap. In fact, historical evidence suggests that this achievement gap has existed at various times for groups other than African Americans. What conditions prevailed when this achievement gap existed for these other groups? Conversely...

  • The Black-White "achievement gap" as a perennial challenge of urban science education: A sociocultural and historical overview with implications for research and practice

    1/1/01 - Norman, Obed, Ault, Charles R., Jr., Bentz, Bonnie, Meskimen, Lloyd

    Explores the academic achievement gap between African American and White students in urban science classrooms. History shows that this gap existed for groups other than African Americans. The authors examine how historical and sociocultural factors in the manifestation and eventual disappearance of the gap for these groups may shed light on the present problem. The authors conclude that the sociocultural position of groups is crucial to understanding the scholastic performance of students...

  • Untitled Record

    1/1/03 - Nerad, Julie Cary

    Discusses the calcification of race system into a visual epistemology of racial difference based largely on skin color in the U.S. Incapability of racial identity to reduce the cultural and psychological significance of race; Justification of systemic inequity and violence; Sense of identity based on family, wealth, education and others.

  • "PRACTICING WHAT WE PREACH: AN ARGUMENT FOR COOPERATIVE LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATORS"

    1/1/05 - Coke, Pamela K.

    Van Allen (1996) supports a paradigm shift in how Americans think about education, from a view of school as hierarchy to school as continuum. While the relationship between elementary and secondary education is not always visible, teachers can model cooperative learning for students by working as a team across grade levels to solve problems, complete tasks, and accomplish common goals, such as reducing gaps and redundancies in education. Schools could respond more productively to elementary...

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