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  • The knowledge gap: Implications of leveling the playing field for low-income and middle-income children

    1/1/06 - Neuman, Susan B., Celano, Donna

    This study examines children's uses of reading resources in neighborhood public libraries that have been transformed to "level the playing field." Through foundation funding (US$20 million), the public library system of Philadelphia converted neighborhood branch libraries into a technologized modern urban library system, hoping to improve the lives of disadvantaged children and their families by closing the achievement gap. Using a mosaic of ethnographic methodologies, four studies examined...

  • The Mathematics and Science Achievement Gap Between Resegregated and Desegregated Schools

    1/1/03 - Ikpa, V. W.

    During the 1990s many school districts abandoned school desegregation initiatives and quietly resegregated the public schools. In 1986, the city of Norfolk ended mandated busing for desegregation and returned to neighborhood schools. This shift resulted in the creation of 11 schools that were more than 95 percent African American. After 17 years of resegregation, the achievement gap between resegregated schools and desegregated schools continues to exist. The purpose of this paper is to...

  • The Mean Is Not Enough: Using Quantile Regression to Examine Trends in Asian-White Differences Across the Entire Achievement Distribution

    1/1/09 - Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    Background: In recent years, Asian Americans have been consistently described as a model minority. The high levels of educational achievement and educational attainment are the main determinants for identifying Asian Americans as a model minority. Nonetheless, only a few studies have examined empirically the accomplishments of Asian Americans, and even fewer studies have compared their achievement with other important societal groups such as Whites. In addition, differences in academic...

  • The Relationships of Peer Norms, Ethnic Identity, and Peer Support to School Engagement in Urban Youth

    1/1/07 - Shin, Richard, Daly, Bryan, Vera, Elizabeth

    Investigating variables associated with the school success and educational resilience of urban youth of color should be a high priority because of the persistent achievement gap in the United States. The current study examined individual and peer factors' relation to the school engagement of 132 seventh- and eighth-grade students from a diverse public elementary school in a large Midwestern city. The participants ranged in age from 12 to 15 years old. In this study, positive peer norms, peer...

  • The Role of Cognition, Motivation, and Emotion in Explaining the Mathematics Achievement Gap Between Hispanic and White Students

    1/1/06 - Stevens, Tara, Olivárez Jr, Arturo, Hamman, Doug

    The authors investigated the relationships between cognitive, motivational, and emotional variables across Hispanic and White students to predict mathematics performance. A theoretically based structural model fit a total sample of 666 4th- to 10th-grade students well, supporting that self-efficacy, sources of self-efficacy, and emotional feedback were all stronger predictors of mathematics performance than general mental ability. Tests of the structural model across ethnicity suggested a...

  • The Significance of Relationships: Academic Engagement and Achievement Among Newcomer Immigrant Youth

    1/1/09 - SuÁEz-Orozco, Carola, Pimentel, Allyson, Martin, Margary

    Background/Context: Newcomer immigrant students are entering schools in the United States in unprecedented numbers. As they enter new school contexts, they face a number of challenges in their adjustment. Previous literature suggested that relationships in school play a particularly crucial role in promoting socially competent behavior in the classroom and in fostering academic engagement and school performance. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the role of school-based...

  • The Structure and Culture of Information Pathways: Rethinking Opportunity to Learn in Urban High Schools during the Ninth Grade Transition

    1/1/07 - Cooper, Robert, Liou, Daniel D.

    Despite efforts to bridge the racial achievement gap, far too many school children continue to fare poorly in our nation's public schools. Oftentimes urban and low income students are negatively labeled as low-achieving, disadvantaged, and struggling. Because of this, such students frequently receive inferior or deficient information from school officials. This study examines the role of high school counselors as distributors of information and the role they play in influencing students'...

  • UNDERSTANDING HOW U.S. SECONDARY SCHOOLS SORT STUDENTS FOR INSTRUCTIONAL PURPOSES: ARE ALL STUDENTS BEING SERVED EQUALLY?

    1/1/08 - Mayer, Anysia

    This article reviews the current research literature on how secondary schools sort students for instructional purposes. Current sorting practices are based on early American philosophies of schooling where the goal of school was to provide students with different curricula based on preparation for future occupations. The article reviews the research on the educational consequences of tracking as well as the processes school's use to place students in various courses. The article also...

  • Understanding the Gap in Mathematics Achievement of Malaysian Students

    1/1/09 - Ismail, Noor Azina

    Of 46 countries that participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study in 2003 (I. V. S. Mullis, M. O. Martin, E. J. Gonzalez, & S. J. Chrostowski, 2004), Malaysia was ranked 10th in international scores of mathematics achievement for 8th-grade students. The present author aimed to examine the importance of students' home backgrounds, resources for learning, activities, and attitudes toward learning mathematics in accounting for high student achievement in...

  • Unintended Consequences: African American Male Educational Attainment and Collegiate Perceptions After Brown v. Board of Education

    1/1/08 - Dancy, I. I. T. Elon E., Brown, I. I. M. Christopher

    The nexus between educational attainment and collegiate perceptions for African American male undergraduates after Brown v. Board of Education et al.'s are explored in this study. Terenzini Transitions to College interview protocol was used to assess participants' precollege, in-class, and out-of-class experiences in college. A sample of eight African American men representing diverse socioeconomic backgrounds and precollege experiences was interviewed to gauge their sensemaking in two...

  • Urban School Achievement Gap as a Metaphor to Conceal U.S. Apartheid Education

    1/1/07 - Cross, Beverly E.

    This article uses the metaphor of the achievement gap to make transparent, discuss, and critique the analytical frame/lens used in the articles to analyze urban education. Doing such an analysis is essential to producing an additional lens that has utility in theory and practice. It facilitates a historical analysis of urban education and leads to creating an argument for the new frame in advancing future work in urban education. This will not represent a response to the articles in the...

  • Using Correlational and Prediction Data to Enhance Student Achievement in K-12 Schools: A Practical Application for School Counselors

    1/1/06 - Ware, William B., Galassi, John P.

    Correlational data and regression analysis provide the school counselor with a method to describe growth in achievement test scores from elementary to high school. Using Microsoft Excel,, this article shows the reader in a step-by-step manner how to describe this growth pattern and how to evaluate interventions that attempt to enhance achievement and to reduce the achievement gap among ethnic groups. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

  • Using Storytelling to Break the Silence That Binds Us to Sameness in Our Schools

    1/1/06 - Caruthers, Loyce

    This qualitative study explores storytelling as a staff development strategy to break the silence surrounding cultural difference in schools and to view differences as key elements of teaching and learning. Stories, interviews, and observations were the data for constructing meaning of existing school cultures with a long history of promoting reform without attention to constructs of race/ethnicity, class, and gender. Findings suggested that (a) stories of urban educators contain historical...

  • Using the Critical Thinking Belief Appraisal to assess the rigor gap

    1/1/08 - Torff, Bruce

    In a line of research employing a survey instrument, the Critical Thinking Belief Appraisal, teachers supported critical-thinking (CT) activities more for high-than low-advantage learners, likely exacerbating a "rigor gap" implicated in persistent achievement gaps. Such beliefs were less likely to be espoused by expert teachers than randomly selected ones, and teacher-education programs mitigated these beliefs but did not expunge them, suggesting a need for interventions that foster belief...

  • When Are Racial Disparities in Education the Result of Racial Discrimination? A Social Science Perspective

    1/1/03 - Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    In this article I seek to answer the question, "When are racial disparities in education the result of racial discrimination?" To answer it I synthesize the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education. My review draws from the sociology, anthropology, political science, psychology, history, and education literatures. I organize explanations into six categories: biological determinism, social structure, school organization and opportunities to learn, family...

  • Who is most responsible for gender differences in scholastic achievements: pupils or teachers?

    1/1/04 - Klein, Joseph

    The disparities between the scholastic achievements of girls and boys have been attributed to biological and sociological factors. The present study investigated the validity of these explanations in a multi-variable situation similar to field conditions. Achievement scores of 3446 pupils in the 5th through 11th grades, half girls and half boys, were sampled. The study controlled for teacher gender, teacher seniority, teachers' tendency to assign high or low grades, ratings of pupils'...

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