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New Project Forum report on Principal Preparedness to Support Diverse Learners

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  • Practical Behavior Management Techniques to Close the Accessibility Gap for Students Who Are Culturally and Linguistically Diverse

    1/1/08 - Cartledge, Gwendolyn, Singh, Angella, Gibson, Lenwood

    Students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds are disproportionately identified for special education in the most restrictive placements. These students tend to have the least access to the general education curriculum and experience the greatest levels of school failure. Educators see an obvious need to change this pattern. These students would benefit most from positive, proactive interventions that enable them to adjust to their school's culture and to master the...

  • Preschool Antecedents of Mathematics Achievement of Latinos: The Influence of Family Resources, Early Literacy Experiences, and Preschool Attendance

    1/1/07 - Lopez, Edward M., Gallimore, Ronald, Garnier, Helen

    Seventy-three Latino middle school students participated in a longitudinal study of the preschool antecedents of their mathematics achievement. Path analysis indicated that family resources (parents' educational level, occupation, and income) predicted home literacy activities, which predicted combined early Spanish literacy and English language proficiencies at kindergarten entry, which predicted elementary mathematics achievement, which in turn predicted middle school mathematics...

  • Pushing Past the Achievement Gap: An Essay on the Language of Deficit

    1/1/07 - Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    Despite the intense focus on the achievement gap that exists between African American, Latino, and other students of color and their White counterparts, the achievement gap discourse keeps us locked in the deficit paradigm. This article challenges us to look at the inherent fallacies of the achievement gap discourse and place students' academic struggles in the larger context of social failure including health, wealth, and funding gaps that impede their school success. [ABSTRACT FROM...

  • Race, inequality and educational accountability: the irony of 'No Child Left Behind'

    1/1/07 - Darling-Hammond, Linda

    The No Child Left Behind Act, the major education initiative of the Bush Administration, was intended to raise educational achievement and close the racial/ethnic achievement gap. Its strategies include focusing schools' attention on raising test scores, mandating better qualified teachers and providing educational choice. Unfortunately, the complex requirements of the law have failed to achieve these goals, and have provoked a number of unintended negative consequences which frequently harm...

  • Race, School Achievement, and Educational Inequality: Toward a Student-Based Inquiry Perspective

    1/1/07 - Wiggan, Greg

    Over the past four decades, there have been numerous discussions on student achievement and school failure. Within this time, the debate over the causes and consequences of racial differences in achievement has been at the heart of the nation's social and political life. The author discusses the major developments in achievement research over the past century and examines the foremost explanations given for racial differences in school performance, namely, genetic deficiency, social class...

  • Race-ethnicity, SES, gender, and language proficiency trends in mathematics achievement: an update

    1/1/97 - Tate, William F.

    The purpose of this article is to document changes in U.S. mathematics achievement by reviewing national trend studies, college admissions examinations, and Advanced Placement tests. This article examined this quantitative research literature to determine trends in mathematics achievement of various social groups defined along lines of race, class, gender, ethnicity, and language proficiency. The findings of this review indicate that over the last 15 years all demographic groups have...

  • Racial and ethnic achievement gap trends: reversing the progress toward equity?

    1/1/02 - Lee, Jaekyung

    Racial and ethnic achievement gaps narrowed substantially in the 1970s and 1980s. As some of the gaps widened in the 1990s, there were some setbacks in the progress the nation made toward racial and ethnic equity. This article offers a look below the surface at Black-White and Hispanic-White achievement gap trends over the past 30 years. The literature review and data analysis identify the key factors that seem to have contributed to bifurcated patterns in achievement gaps. The conventional...

  • Racial Disparities and Discrimination in Education: What Do We Know, How Do We Know It, and What Do We Need to Know?

    1/1/03 - Farkas, George

    This paper reviews what we have learned about racial discrepancies in education, with particular attention to those that might be attributable to discrimination. Empirical studies have found that, on average, African American, Latino, and American Indian children arrive at kindergarten or first grade with lower levels of oral language, prereading, and premathematics skills, as well as lesser general knowledge, than that possessed by White and Asian American children. African American...

  • Recursive Processes in Self-Affirmation: Intervening to Close the Minority Achievement Gap

    1/1/09 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio, Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie, Apfel, Nancy, Brzustoski, Patricia

    A 2-year follow-up of a randomized field experiment previously reported in Science is presented. A subtle intervention to lessen minority students' psychological threat related to being negatively stereotyped in school was tested in an experiment conducted three times with three independent cohorts (N = 133, 149, and 134). The intervention, a series of brief but structured writing assignments focusing students on a self-affirming value, reduced the racial achievement gap. Over 2 years, the...

  • Reducing the Gap: Success for All and the Achievement of African American Students

    1/1/06 - Slavin, Robert E., Madden, Nancy A.

    Success for All is a comprehensive reform model that uses cooperative learning, tutoring, family support services, and extensive professional development to help high-poverty schools succeed with their students. This article reviews research on Success for All with African American students, focusing on evidence that Success for All reduces the achievement gap between African American and White students. More than 40 studies, including a national randomized experiment, have found positive...

  • Reducing the Racial Achievement Gap: A Social-Psychological Intervention

    1/1/06 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio, Apfel, Nancy, Master, Allison

    Two randomized field experiments tested a social-psychological intervention designed to improve minority student performance and increase our understanding of how psychological threat mediates performance in chronically evaluative real-world environments. We expected that the risk of confirming a negative stereotype aimed at one's group could undermine academic performance in minority students by elevating their level of psychological threat. We tested whether such psychological threat could...

  • Responding to the Quantitative Literacy Gap among Students in Sociology Courses

    1/1/09 - Wilder, Esther Isabelle

    The Integrating Data Analysis (IDA) approach to undergraduate education developed by the American Sociological Association (ASA) and the Social Science Data Analysis Network (SSDAN) has been embedded in the undergraduate sociology curriculum at Lehman College, The City University of New York (CUNY), since 2003. This study draws on student and faculty assessment data from the fall 2004 and spring 2006 semesters to evaluate the effectiveness of this initiative. The results show that students...

  • School racial composition and academic achievement: the case of Hmong LEP students in the USA

    1/1/08 - Lee, Moosung, Madyun, Na'im

    The existence of the achievement gap is more than just a black-white issue; contrary to stereotypes, it is a concern within Asian homes. Hmong students underachieve in comparison with many East Asian students. Traditional cultural practices and poverty have been identified as explanatory factors. Our data suggest that a more critical factor might be within-school segregation. Utilising a racial exposure statistic, it was found that the more diverse a school became, the higher the achievement...

  • Schools, achievement, and inequality: a seasonal perspective

    1/1/01 - Alexander, Karl L., Entwisle, Doris R., Olson, Linda S.

    Are there socioeconomic differences in the seasonality of children's learning over the school year and summer months? The achievement gap across social lines increases during the primary grades, as much research indicates, but descriptive analyses and HLM within-person growth models for a representative panel of Baltimore school children demonstrate that the increase can be traced mainly to the out-of-school environment (i.e., influences situated in home and community). School-year verbal...

  • Secondary Education Systemic Issues: Addressing Possible Contributors to a Leak in the Science Education Pipeline and Potential Solutions

    1/1/05 - Young, Hollie

    To maintain the legacy of cutting edge scientific innovation in the United States our country must address the many pressing issues facing science education today. One of the most important issues relating to science education is the under-representation of African Americans and Hispanics in the science, technology, and engineering workforce. Foreshadowing such under-representation in the workforce are the disproportionately low rates of African American and Hispanic students attaining...

  • Self-regulation and the income-achievement gap

    1/1/08 - Evans, Gary W., Rosenbaum, Jennifer

    Abstract: The pervasive income-related achievement gap among children has been partially explained by parental investments. Wealthier parents provide more cognitively enriched environments (e.g., books, informal learning opportunities such as music lessons) and converse more with their children relative to low-income parents. However parental investment only partially accounts for the income-achievement gap. On average, low-income children have more difficulty regulating their emotions and...

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