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  • Disparities Within: Unequal Spending and Achievement in an Urban School District

    1/1/03 - Condron, Dennis J., Roscigno, Vincent J.

    The debate over whether educational spending shapes achievement has persisted for decades, largely because of methodological and analytical limitations associated with the use of district-level data. In this study, the authors analyzed unique within-district variations in spending and achievement among 89 public elementary schools in a large, North Central, urban district. The analyses reveal considerable disparities in spending within the district, which are linked to local patterns of...

  • Disparities Within: Unequal Spending and Achievement in an Urban School District

    1/1/03 - Condron, Dennis J., Roscigno, Vincent J.

    The debate over whether educational spending shapes achievement has persisted for decades, largely because of methodological and analytical limitations associated with the use of district-level data. In this study, the authors analyzed unique within-district variations in spending and achievement among 89 public elementary schools in a large, North Central, urban district. The analyses reveal considerable disparities in spending within the district, which are linked to local patterns of...

  • How Large an Effect Can We Expect from School Reforms?

    1/1/08 - Konstantopoulos, Spyros, Hedges, Larry V.

    Background/Context: Determining the effectiveness of reform strategies is a major part of the current and future educational research agenda. Effects of education reforms will be evaluated largely quantitatively, and an important aspect of this work will be judging how well reform strategies work. The rhetoric of contemporary school reform suggests two somewhat different solutions to the problem of the interpretive frame. One solution is derived from the idea that the goal of school reform...

  • The Growing Female Advantage in College Completion: The Role of Family Background and Academic Achievement

    1/1/06 - Buchmann, Claudia, DiPrete, Thomas A.

    In a few short decades, the gender gap in college completion has reversed from favoring men to favoring women. This study, which is the first to assess broadly the causes of the growing female advantage in college completion, considers the impact of family resources as well as gender differences in academic performance and in the pathways to college completion on the rising gender gap. Analyses of General Social Survey data indicate that the female-favorable trend in college completion...

  • Untitled Record

    1/1/03 - Nerad, Julie Cary

    Discusses the calcification of race system into a visual epistemology of racial difference based largely on skin color in the U.S. Incapability of racial identity to reduce the cultural and psychological significance of race; Justification of systemic inequity and violence; Sense of identity based on family, wealth, education and others.

  • "They might need a little extra hand, you know": Latino students in at-risk programs

    1/1/08 - Fairbrother, Anne

    This is a qualitative study in a school district in a large city in the Southwest in response to the research question, "What are staff and student expectations for, and assessment of, three 'at-risk' programs in this large school district?" Four thematic findings from observations and interviews in four classes in two high school alternative programs and one alternative high school over one semester are reported, concerning (a) commitment to the programs, (b) labeling of students, (c...

  • 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation

    1/1/10 - Partnership for 21st Century Skills

    This is an exciting and challenging time for teacher educators. The nature of teaching is changing. In an effort to transform themselves into exemplary educator preparation institutions, many programs are becoming more entrepreneurial, recognizing new opportunities and making changes required to respond to the needs of 21st century learners. Many are successfully engaged in strategies such as: • Providing high-quality alternative routes to teaching, • Building on private and...

  • A road map for mathematics achievement for all students: findings from the national mathematics panel

    1/1/09 - Brown, C.,

    The eminence, safety, and well-being of nations have been entwined for centuries with the ability of their people to deal with sophisticated quantitative ideas. Leading societies have commanded mathematical skills that have brought them advantages in medicine and health, in technology and commerce, in navigation and exploration, in defense and finance, and in the ability to understand past failures and to forecast future developments. History is full of examples. During most of the 20th...

  • pdf

    A summary of research on the effects of test accommodations: 2002 through 2004

    1/3/09 - Johnstone, C., Altman, J., Thurlow, M., Thompson, S. J.

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) requires the reporting of participation in assessments overall and by subgroup, including students with disabilities. As states and school districts strive to meet the goals for adequate yearly progress required by NCLB, the use of individual accommodations continues to be scrutinized for effectiveness, threats to test validity, and score comparability. This report summarizes 49 empirical research studies completed on test accommodations between...

  • Academic achievement of homeless and highly mobile children in an urban school district: Longitudinal evidence on risk, growth, and resilience

    1/1/09 - Obradović, Jelena, Long, Jeffrey D., Cutuli, J. J., Chi-Keung, Chan, Hinz, Elizabeth, Heistad, David, Masten, Ann S.

    Longitudinal growth trajectories of reading and math achievement were studied in four primary school grade cohorts (GCs) of a large urban district to examine academic risk and resilience in homeless and highly mobile (H/HM) students. Initial achievement was assessed when student cohorts were in the second, third, fourth, and fifth grades, and again 12 and 18 months later. Achievement trajectories of H/HM students were compared to low-income but nonmobile students and all other tested...

  • Addressing the Achievement Gap Between Minority and Nonminority Children: Increasing Access and Achievement Through Project EXCITE

    1/1/06 - Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    Part of a special issue on underrepresented populations. The writer discusses Project Excite, which was developed with the aim of raising the achievement of gifted minority students in a large suburban school district of Chicago so that they could qualify for advanced programs and accelerated tracks in high school in math and science. After having discussed the elements of the project, she presents findings on the extent to which the project increased both minority student access to advanced...

  • Beginning Reading Intervention Report: Peer-Assisted Learning/Literacy Strategies

    1/1/12 - What Works Clearinghouse., U.S. Department of Education

    Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies and a similar program known as Peer-Assisted Literacy Strategies are peer-tutoring programs that supplement the primary reading curriculum (Fuchs, Fuchs, Kazdan, & Allen, 1999; Mathes & Babyak, 2001). This review uses the acronym PALS to encompass both programs and their respective full names when referring to a specific program. Students in PALS classrooms work in pairs on reading activities intended to improve reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension...

  • Brain-behavior relationships in reading acquisition are modulated by socioeconomic factors

    1/1/06 - Noble, Kimberly G., Wolmetz, Michael E., Ochs, Lisa G., Farah, Martha J., McCandliss, Bruce D.

    Functional neuroimaging may provide insights into the achievement gap in reading skill commonly observed across socioeconomic status (SES). Brain activation during reading tasks is known to be associated with individual differences in children's phonological language skills. By selecting children of equivalent phonological skill, yet diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate that a child's experience, as operationalized by SES, can...

  • Bridging the Gap: Towards an Understanding of Young Children's Thinking in Multiage Groups

    1/1/05 - Gerard, Maureen

    A study examined academic performance in multiage classes. Data were obtained from a multiage group of 29 nine, ten, and eleven-year-olds in a suburban area of a large metropolitan area in the western United States. Findings revealed no evidence of differences in academic performance on standardized tests for the students in this multiage group. Findings imply that multiage students are as intelligent as their counterparts of the same age.

  • Changes in the Black-White gap in achievement test scores

    1/1/99 - Hedges, Larry V., Nowell, Amy

    Two questions of scholarly and public policy interest concerning the well-documented racial difference in scores on achievement tests are How much of the racial difference ("gap") can be attributed to social-class differences between Blacks and Whites? and How much has the racial gap changed over the past 30 years? To address these questions, the authors analyzed evidence from seven probability samples of national populations of adolescents from 1965-1996. The Ss were in their last year of...

  • Changing Students, Changing Teaching

    1/1/00 - Stodolsky, Susan S., Grossman, Pamela L.

    Educators are searching for effective ways to meet the challenges posed by increased cultural diversity among students. We explore this issue at the high school level where concerns about subject matter and student diversity intersect sharply. A case study approach, augmented by a large sample survey, is used to understand the dynamics of adaptation to a changing student population. We document adaptations in curriculum, instruction, and assessment made by math and English teachers. We...

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