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Tag: attitudes

Tag » attitudes

  • It's Not "a Black Thing": Understanding the Burden of Acting White and Other Dilemmas of High Achievement

    1/1/05 - Tyson, Karolyn, Darity, William, Jr., Castellino, Domini R.

    For two decades the acting white hypothesis--the premise that black students are driven toward low school performance because of racialized peer pressure--has served as an explanation for the black-white achievement gap. Fordham and Ogbu proposed that black youths sabotage their own school careers by taking an oppositional stance toward academic achievement. Using interviews and existing data from eight North Carolina secondary public schools, this article shows that black adolescents are...

  • Latino adolescents' civic development in the United States: Research results from the IEA civic education study

    1/1/07 - Torney-Purta, Judith, Barber, Carolyn H., Wilkenfeld, Britt

    Many studies have reported gaps between Latino and non-Latino adolescents in academic and political outcomes. The current study presents possible explanations for such gaps, both at the individual and school level. Hierarchical linear modeling is employed to examine data from 2,811 American ninth graders (approximately 14 years of age) who had participated in the IEA Civic Education study. Analyses of large data bases enable the consideration of individual characteristics and experiences, as...

  • More Than One Gap: Dropout Rate Gaps Between and Among Black, Hispanic, and White Students

    1/1/07 - Carpenter Ii, Dick M., Ramirez, Al

    The achievement gap, traditionally measured by test scores, also can be documented by dropout behavior. Examining dropout behavior among Black, White, and Hispanic students, with a particular focus on gaps within groups and not just between Whites and minorities, shows a clearer picture of the achievement gap. The results of our study show multiple achievement gaps both between and within groups, ultimately concluding that within-group gaps were often more significant than gaps between...

  • On Interpreting Research on Stereotype Threat and Test Performance

    1/1/05 - Sackett, Paul R., Hardison, Chaitra M., Cullen, Michael J.

    The authors comment on the comments (see records 2005-03019-016; 2005-03019-017; 2005-03019-018) made on their original article entitled <i>On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on Cognitive Tests</i> (see record 2004-10043-001). The authors welcome the thoughtful insights of Wicherts, Helms, and Cohen and Sherman, and they hope that these comments stimulate further critical analysis of methodological issues associated with stereotype threat...

  • Parent attitudes toward learning disabilities.

    1/1/72 - Wetter, J.
  • Parental care and intrusiveness as predictors of the abilities–achievement gap in adolescence

    1/1/98 - Feldman, Ruth, Guttfreund, Daniel, Yerushalmi, Hannoch

    Examined relations between adolescents' perception of parental care and intrusiveness and the abilities–achievement gap. Cognitive abilities and academic achievement were assessed for 200 Israeli 10th graders (aged 15–17 yrs). Representations of maternal and paternal care and intrusiveness and externalizing and internalizing symptoms were self-reported. Gender differences were found for the abilities–achievement gap. Boys' achievement in mathematics and language was...

  • Perceptions of "Acting Black" Among African American Teens: Implications of Racial Dramaturgy for Academic and Social Achievement

    1/1/04 - Peterson-Lewis, Sonja, Bratton, Lisa M.

    Content analysis of 56 African American high school students' descriptions of the meaning of "acting Black" revealed five underlying content dimensions: (1) academic/scholastic, (2) aesthetic/stylistic, (3) behavioral, (4) dispositional, and (5) impressionistic. With the exception of the qualities in the aesthetic/stylistic category, the respondents attributed primarily negative qualities to "acting Black." Although Black youths' perspectives on "acting White" has been a topic of great...

  • Performance boosts in the classroom: Stereotype endorsement and prejudice moderate stereotype lift

    1/1/08 - Chatard, Armand, Selimbegović, Leila, Konan, Paul, Mugny, Gabriel

    The present study (N = 293) examined whether stereotype endorsement and prejudice moderate stereotype lift (i.e., a performance boost caused by the salience of a negative out-group stereotype in the testing situation). The stereotype in the focus of inquiry was the belief that immigrant students have lower intellectual ability than native students. French native high school students performed an intellectual test in a condition of low stereotype salience (the test was presented as assessing...

  • Recursive processes in self-affirmation: Intervening to close the minority achievement gap

    1/1/09 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio, Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie, Apfel, Nancy, Brzustoski, Patricia

    A 2-year follow-up of a randomized field experiment previously reported in Science is presented. A subtle intervention to lesson minority students' psychological threat related to being negatively stereotyped in school was tested in an experiment conducted three times with three independent cohorts (N=133, 149, and 134). The intervention, a series of brief but structured writing assignments focusing students on self-affirming value, reduced the racial achievement gap. Over 2 years, the grade...

  • Reducing the Racial Achievement Gap: A Social-Psychological Intervention

    1/1/06 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio, Apfel, Nancy, Master, Allison

    Two randomized field experiments tested a social-psychological intervention designed to improve minority student performance and increase our understanding of how psychological threat mediates performance in chronically evaluative real-world environments. We expected that the risk of confirming a negative stereotype aimed at one's group could undermine academic performance in minority students by elevating their level of psychological threat. We tested whether such psychological threat could...

  • Relating test-taking attitudes and skills and stereotype threat effects to the racial gap in cognitive ability test performance

    1/1/03 - Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D., O'Neal, Alisha, Ryan, Ann Marie

    This research extended past studies on race effects and stereotype threat (ST) effects outside the academic domain, as well as exploring the mediating role of test-related cognition, motivation, and emotionality in the Black-White cognitive ability test performance differences. One hundred seventy-two undergraduates took a simulated personnel selection test and responded to measures of attitudinal and test-taking skills prior to and after the test. Half of the participants were told that the...

  • Reversing the "standard" direction: Science emerging from the lives of African American students

    1/1/01 - Seiler, Gale

    Recognizing the persistent science achievement gap between inner-city African American students and students from mainstream, White society, this article suggests that the imposition of external standards on inner-city schools will do little to ameliorate this gap because such an approach fails to address the significance of the social and cultural lives of the students. Instead, it is suggested that the use of critical ethnographic research would enable educators to learn from the students...

  • School choice, racial segregation and test-score gaps: Evidence from North Carolina's charter school program

    1/1/07 - Bifulco, Robert, Ladd, Helen F.

    Using panel data that track individual students from year to year, we examine the effects of charter schools in North Carolina on racial segregation and black-white test score gaps. We find that North Carolina's system of charter schools has increased the racial isolation of both black and white students, and has widened the achievement gap. Moreover, the relatively large negative effects of charter schools on the achievement of black students is driven by students who transfer into charter...

  • Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of the Achievement Gap

    1/1/05 - Bol, Linda, Berry, Robert Q., III

    The purpose of this study was to survey the perceptions of secondary mathematics teachers on factors contributing to the achievement gap and ways to reduce this gap. National Council of the Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) members were surveyed, and a total of 379 secondary teachers responded. Overall, respondents were most likely to attribute the achievement gap to student characteristics, such as differences in motivational levels, work ethic, and family support. Furthermore, teachers from...

  • Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of the Achievement Gap

    1/1/05 - Bol, Linda, Berry, Robert Q., III
  • Smooth and rough roads to academic achievement: Retention and race/class disparities in high school

    1/1/06 - Moller, Stephanie, Stearns, Elizabeth, Blau, Judith R., Land, Kenneth C.

    Educational and psychological researchers have long debated the relationship between retention and achievement. However, quantitative research on achievement trajectories has neglected this important variable. Given that retention policies are being institutionalized in schools, it is important to understand the relationship between retention and achievement trajectories. We examine the National Education Longitudinal Study, 1988-1992 to determine if reading and mathematical achievement...

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