Learning Resources

Leadscape is now accepting applications!. Download the application (PDF).

Find out what we’ve been up to! Download the Quarterly Report here!

New Project Forum report on Principal Preparedness to Support Diverse Learners

ability abridged accommodations accuracy action activities administrators adolescent alliance alternate america applies asian assistance attitudes author background blind building characteristics coaching cognitive collaborative collection compared comprehensive conditions connections content context continuing copied council counselors creating critical current database decision describes determine developmental discrimination disorders disparities disproportionality distribution documents download economic efforts emailed emotional engagement ensure environment equalization equitable exceptional expectations explores express factors focus focuses framework funding future gender general gifted governance graduation handbook handouts health helping higher hispanic holder human identity immigrant impact implementation implications important income increasing indicator inequality influence initiative inquiry institute integration interactions international intervening involvement justice kindergarten knowledge large latino leaders lessons listserv local longitudinal making management material matters means mental methods monitoring multicultural multiple number offers organization original paper peers people perceptions permission personal perspectives planning population posted postsecondary poverty power powerpoints preparation preschool prevention print problem process proficiency progress project promoting property psychology psycinfo published questions rates readiness recommendations record reduce refer reflective related relationship requirements retardation selected series serve settings significant sites skills slide society socioeconomic specific start statistics status stereotype structure struggling suggests survey teams technical technology topical total training trends universal users version warranty working writing written years young youth

Journal Article: Self-regulation and the income-achievement gap

Journal Article » Self-regulation and the income-achievement gap




Evans, Gary W.; Rosenbaum, Jennifer




Abstract: The pervasive income-related achievement gap among children has been partially explained by parental investments. Wealthier parents provide more cognitively enriched environments (e.g., books, informal learning opportunities such as music lessons) and converse more with their children relative to low-income parents. However parental investment only partially accounts for the income-achievement gap. On average, low-income children have more difficulty regulating their emotions and behavior in comparison to their wealthier counterparts. Academic achievement is a function not only of cognitive competencies but also encompasses emotional and behavioral components that could also contribute to the income-achievement gap. In Study 1, family income among rural, White 9-year-olds is positively related to delay of gratification skill. This, in turn, accounts for subsequent, middle school grades at age 13. In Study 2, family income during early childhood (age 2 to Grade 3) in an ethnically diverse, national sample predicts cognitive development in 5th graders, controlling for prior levels of cognitive development at 15 months. This prospective, longitudinal relation is again mediated by delay of gratification skills. Evidence is also presented in Study 2 that the income→self-regulation→achievement path operates independently of parental investment. Analyses of both sets of data also include multiple indices of familial characteristics (e.g., maternal education, ethnicity, single-parent status). Early childhood poverty matters for later academic achievement but reasons encompass both cognitive and socioemotional processes. [Copyright 2008 Elsevier]
Copyright of Early Childhood Research Quarterly is the property of Elsevier Science Inc. NY/Journals and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)