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Category: Urban Environments

Category » Urban Environments

  • Advocacy as a Critical Role for Urban School Counselors: Working Toward Equity and Social Justice

    1/1/05 - Bemak, Fred, Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    The academic achievement gap of students of color and low-income students as compared to middle and upper socioeconomic students and White students has been clearly documented. Historically the long-standing role of the school counselor has contributed to the status quo of these inequities, inadvertently maintaining educational and social disparities. This has been reflected in school counselors' training, role or job descriptions, and actual practice. This article explores the need for a...

  • Attributed for academic achievement: A comparative study in tribal and non-tribal settings

    1/1/08 - Rath, Muralidhar

    The failure or poor performance of tribal students in their academic tests has initiated deep debates and grave discussions now-a-days. It is worthwhile to note that tribal students in India are not only they who reside in ashrams or hostels of different urban schools and colleges, and are mostly compared by researchers with non-tribal students. Rather, a major portion of tribals dwell in rural and tribal settings and some of them pursue their education in poorly maintained schools and...

  • Burden of acting neither White nor Black: Asian American identities and achievement in urban schools

    1/1/06 - Lew, Jamie

    Ogbu's theory of "burden of acting white" has been one of the most frequently cited studies to explain black and white achievement gap. However, emerging studies have argued that Ogbu's theory may be limited when examining variability of school achievement among black and white students. Research shows that in addition to culture, other social forces, such as class, peer networks, and school context may play a significant role when accounting for minority students' academic aspirations and...

  • Disentangling the racial test score gap: Probing the evidence in a large urban school district

    1/1/07 - Stiefel, Leanna, Schwartz, Amy Ellen, Ellen, Ingrid Gould

    We examine the size and distribution of the gap in test scores across races within New York City public schools and the factors that explain these gaps. While gaps are partially explained by differences in student characteristics, such as poverty, differences in schools attended are also important. At the same time, substantial within-school gaps remain and are only partly explained by differences in academic preparation across students from different race groups. Controlling for differences...

  • Disparities Within: Unequal Spending and Achievement in an Urban School District

    1/1/03 - Condron, Dennis J., Roscigno, Vincent J.

    The debate over whether educational spending shapes achievement has persisted for decades, largely because of methodological and analytical limitations associated with the use of district-level data. In this study, the authors analyzed unique within-district variations in spending and achievement among 89 public elementary schools in a large, North Central, urban district. The analyses reveal considerable disparities in spending within the district, which are linked to local patterns of...

  • Empowerment Groups for Academic Success: An Innovative Approach to Prevent High School Failure for At-Risk, Urban African American Girls

    1/1/05 - Bemak, Fred, Chung, Rita Chi-Ying, Siroskey-Sabdo, Linda A.

    Twenty-first-century urban schools face unique challenges in being culturally responsive and providing quality education to culturally diverse and low-income students. The academic achievement gap for low-income and ethnic youth poses the need for new and innovative interventions by educational institutions. School counselors are in a unique position in schools to assume leadership roles in reducing academic disparity. This article discusses the experience of urban youth identified as being...

  • Reversing the "standard" direction: Science emerging from the lives of African American students

    1/1/01 - Seiler, Gale

    Recognizing the persistent science achievement gap between inner-city African American students and students from mainstream, White society, this article suggests that the imposition of external standards on inner-city schools will do little to ameliorate this gap because such an approach fails to address the significance of the social and cultural lives of the students. Instead, it is suggested that the use of critical ethnographic research would enable educators to learn from the students...

  • The Black-White "achievement gap" as a perennial challenge of urban science education: A sociocultural and historical overview with implications for research and practice

    1/1/01 - Norman, Obed, Ault, Charles R., Jr., Bentz, Bonnie, Meskimen, Lloyd

    Explores the academic achievement gap between African American and White students in urban science classrooms. History shows that this gap existed for groups other than African Americans. The authors examine how historical and sociocultural factors in the manifestation and eventual disappearance of the gap for these groups may shed light on the present problem. The authors conclude that the sociocultural position of groups is crucial to understanding the scholastic performance of students...

  • Why Black girls don't matter: Exploring how race and gender shape academic success in an inner city school

    1/1/07 - Rollock, Nicola

    The continued low academic attainment of Black pupils is now a well-established, familiar feature of the annual statistics of educational attainment. Black pupils tend to consistently perform below their white counterparts and below the national average. Key debates, examining how to address the difference in attainment gap, have tended to focus almost exclusively on the achievements of Black male pupils with little explicit attention paid to the needs and experiences of their female...